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Eritrea has a population of about 5 million people. Approximately one third of the population is believed to be agro-pastoralists and pastoralists. They live mainly in the Eastern and Western Lowlands of the country and own goats, sheep, cattle and/or camels.

Although the pastoralists communities are well adapted to the climate conditions and the fragile natural environment they are broadly neglected by national and international development efforts. Their actual and potential contribution to food security and national income in Eritrea has until this point not been acknowledged.

The recent closure of borders with the Sudan and Ethiopia has resulted in the restriction of traditional migration routes of Eritrean pastoralists in search for water and grassland during the dry season. This led to a serious shortage of fodder sources for their livestock.

Eritrea: Country profile

Population: 5 million

Agro-pastoralist population: 1/3

Total Surface area: 125,000 Km­­2

Land occupy by Pastoralist: 55.9%

Human Development Index: 0.421